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Immigration Policy Brief
October 2006
Last updated October 23, 2006
Undocumented Immigration by Congressional District

by Rob Paral*

Introduction:

Over the past year, Congress has debated major changes to immigration law as a response to undocumented immigration. While this debate has relied heavily upon estimates of undocumented immigration at the national level, less attention has been paid to the number of undocumented immigrants in local areas—and almost no analyses have considered the size and scope of undocumented immigration in each of the 435 congressional districts. Yet the size of the undocumented population in each congressional district is an important consideration in gauging whether or not a representative’s stance on a particular immigration policy or initiative has a basis in the actual, local impact of undocumented immigration.

An earlier IPC analysis showed that the number of undocumented immigrants was surprisingly low in the districts of key representatives leading the effort to restrict immigration. For example, there are relatively few undocumented immigrants in the districts of either Rep. Tom Tancredo (R-6th/CO), chair of the Congressional Immigration Reform Caucus, or Rep. F. James Sensenbrenner (R-5th/WI), chair of the House Judiciary Committee. Both were champions of H.R. 4437, the Border Protection, Anti-Terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act—an enforcement-only immigration bill passed by the House of Representatives on December 16, 2005.1

However, the extent of undocumented immigration in congressional districts is important for reasons beyond the interpretation of a representative’s voting record. Undocumented immigrants are counted by the census, the population estimates of which are used to apportion congressional districts, to re-draw the districts of state representatives and senators, and to delineate districts for a wide variety of municipal services (schools, police, fire protection, etc.). In addition, undocumented immigrants have a significant impact on local economies if they are present in sizable numbers. On the one hand, they contribute by paying taxes, purchasing consumer items, and—increasingly—becoming homebuyers. On the other hand, they utilize health care and social services that can strain local and state budgets. Moreover, many undocumented immigrants live in households that include native-born children, meaning that the welfare of millions of U.S. citizens depends in large part on the welfare of their undocumented parents.

Findings

Recently released data from the 2005 American Community Survey permit us to update our previous estimates of the undocumented population by congressional district and to compare these estimates with those from the 2000 census. Although the undocumented population of the United States as a whole increased substantially over these five years, trends in undocumented immigration varied widely from district to district:

  • In 2005, undocumented immigrants accounted for about 10 percent or more of the total population in only 27 (or roughly 6 percent) of the 435 congressional districts.
  • Conversely, undocumented immigrants comprised about 5 percent or less of the population in more than half (or 232) of all congressional districts in 2005.
  • Between 2000 and 2005, the undocumented population of 107 districts doubled, although most of these districts had relatively few undocumented immigrants to begin with.
  • More strikingly, 39 districts experienced either a decline or no change in their undocumented population between 2000 and 2005. Many of these districts had been major destinations for new arrivals in the past, but are becoming less so as immigrants move to other parts of the country.

Undocumented Immigrants are Settling in New Areas

Increasingly, undocumented immigrants to the United States are choosing to settle in new areas like North Carolina, Nebraska, and Nevada rather than traditional immigrant destination states such as New York, Florida, and California. For example, California received almost 54 percent of all non-citizen Mexican immigrants who arrived in the country in 1990-2000, but during the subsequent 2000-2005 period received only 18 percent of the national total.

The district of Rep. Benjamin Cardin (D-3rd/MD) is an example of a new immigrant settlement area with a growing number of undocumented migrants. Representative Cardin’s district includes parts of Baltimore as well as suburban areas north and south of the city. The latest census data suggests that his district has picked up approximately 18,000 undocumented immigrants since 2000.

The settlement patterns of undocumented immigrants are changing along with those of legal immigrants. A case in point is the district of Rep. Loretta Sanchez (D-47th/CA), located in Orange County, which experienced a decline of about 18,000 undocumented immigrants between 2000 and 2005. At the same time, the district’s foreign-born population as a whole fell by nearly 15,000, and the Mexican foreign-born population in particular fell by more than 10,000.

These shifting settlement patterns among immigrants raise the question of how elected officials will respond to growing numbers of undocumented constituents in their districts. These immigrants are likely to remain in the United States for long periods of time and warrant attention from local officials charged with promoting economic and social development. Deciding how to interact with and, indeed, represent undocumented constituents and their families will be an increasingly important task for many congressional representatives.

Printer Friendly Version of Table
Approximate Size of the Undocumented Population
By Congressional District
 
Representative
Party
District
Total # 2000
% Population (a)
Total # 2005
% Population (b)
% Change
 
8,200,000
Don Young
AK-AL
5,000
0.8%
5,000
0.8%
0%
Jo Bonner
R
AL-01
3,000
0.5%
NA
NA
NA
Terry Everett
R
AL-02
3,000
0.5%
NA
NA
NA
Mike Rogers
R
AL-03
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
Robert Aderholt
R
AL-04
8,000
1.2%
NA
NA
NA
Robert Cramer, Jr.
D
AL-05
4,000
0.6%
9,000
1.4%
125%
Spencer Bachus
R
AL-06
5,000
0.8%
12,000
1.8%
140%
Artur Davis
D
AL-07
4,000
0.6%
NA
NA
NA
Marion Berry
D
AR-01
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
Vic Snyder
D
AR-02
6,000
0.9%
13,000
2.0%
117%
John Boozman
R
AR-03
17,000
2.6%
31,000
4.7%
82%
Mike Ross
D
AR-04
6,000
0.9%
NA
NA
NA
Rick Renzi
R
AZ-01
12,000
1.9%
20,000
3.0%
67%
Trent Franks
R
AZ-02
13,000
2.0%
25,000
3.8%
92%
John Shadegg
R
AZ-03
29,000
4.5%
43,000
6.5%
48%
Ed Pastor
D
AZ-04
118,000
18.2%
165,000
24.9%
40%
J. D. Hayworth
R
AZ-05
23,000
3.6%
51,000
7.7%
122%
Jeff Flake
R
AZ-06
27,000
4.2%
47,000
7.1%
74%
Raul Grijalva
D
AZ-07
45,000
7.0%
87,000
13.1%
93%
Jim Kolbe
R
AZ-08
12,000
1.9%
21,000
3.2%
75%
Mike Thompson
D
CA-01
29,000
4.5%
32,000
4.8%
10%
Wally Herger
R
CA-02
19,000
2.9%
19,000
2.9%
0%
Daniel Lungren
R
CA-03
12,000
1.9%
25,000
3.8%
108%
John Doolittle
R
CA-04
9,000
1.4%
24,000
3.6%
167%
Doris Matsui
D
CA-05
30,000
4.6%
57,000
8.6%
90%
Lynn Woolsey
D
CA-06
30,000
4.6%
39,000
5.9%
30%
George Miller
D
CA-07
32,000
4.9%
43,000
6.5%
34%
Nancy Pelosi
D
CA-08
35,000
5.4%
39,000
5.9%
11%
Barbara Lee
D
CA-09
41,000
6.3%
46,000
6.9%
12%
Ellen Tauscher
D
CA-10
22,000
3.4%
41,000
6.2%
86%
Richard Pombo
R
CA-11
22,000
3.4%
36,000
5.4%
64%
Tom Lantos
D
CA-12
28,000
4.3%
41,000
6.2%
46%
Fortney Stark
D
CA-13
40,000
6.2%
51,000
7.7%
28%
Anna Eshoo
D
CA-14
47,000
7.3%
56,000
8.4%
19%
Michael Honda
D
CA-15
44,000
6.8%
56,000
8.4%
27%
Zoe Lofgren
D
CA-16
61,000
9.4%
54,000
8.1%
-11%
Sam Farr
D
CA-17
63,000
9.7%
63,000
9.5%
0%
Dennis Cardoza
D
CA-18
47,000
7.3%
73,000
11.0%
55%
George Radanovich
R
CA-19
26,000
4.0%
47,000
7.1%
81%
Jim Costa
D
CA-20
71,000
11.0%
80,000
12.1%
13%
Devin Nunes
R
CA-21
44,000
6.8%
61,000
9.2%
39%
William Thomas
R
CA-22
14,000
2.2%
19,000
2.9%
36%
Lois Capps
D
CA-23
54,000
8.3%
58,000
8.7%
7%
Elton Gallegly
R
CA-24
22,000
3.4%
19,000
2.9%
-14%
Howard McKeon
R
CA-25
22,000
3.4%
31,000
4.7%
41%
David Dreier
R
CA-26
21,000
3.2%
21,000
3.2%
0%
Brad Sherman
D
CA-27
47,000
7.3%
55,000
8.3%
17%
Howard Berman
D
CA-28
79,000
12.2%
88,000
13.3%
11%
Adam Schiff
D
CA-29
44,000
6.8%
42,000
6.3%
-5%
Henry Waxman
D
CA-30
19,000
2.9%
22,000
3.3%
16%
Xavier Becerra
D
CA-31
117,000
18.1%
94,000
14.2%
-20%
Hilda Solis
D
CA-32
65,000
10.0%
63,000
9.5%
-3%
Diane Watson
D
CA-33
58,000
9.0%
56,000
8.4%
-3%
Lucille Roybal-Allard
D
CA-34
100,000
15.5%
102,000
15.4%
2%
Maxine Waters
D
CA-35
62,000
9.6%
62,000
9.4%
0%
Jane Harman
D
CA-36
42,000
6.5%
30,000
4.5%
-29%
Juanita Millender-McDonald
D
CA-37
56,000
8.7%
56,000
8.4%
0%
Grace Napolitano
D
CA-38
61,000
9.4%
57,000
8.6%
-7%
Linda Sanchez
D
CA-39
55,000
8.5%
41,000
6.2%
-25%
Edward Royce
R
CA-40
48,000
7.4%
50,000
7.5%
4%
Jerry Lewis
R
CA-41
16,000
2.5%
30,000
4.5%
88%
Gary Miller
R
CA-42
23,000
3.6%
25,000
3.8%
9%
Joe Baca
D
CA-43
50,000
7.7%
51,000
7.7%
2%
Ken Calvert
R
CA-44
31,000
4.8%
62,000
9.4%
100%
Mary Bono
R
CA-45
38,000
5.9%
45,000
6.8%
18%
Dana Rohrabacher
R
CA-46
30,000
4.6%
37,000
5.6%
23%
Loretta Sanchez
D
CA-47
120,000
18.5%
102,000
15.4%
-15%
John Campbell
R
CA-48
27,000
4.2%
30,000
4.5%
11%
Darrell Issa
R
CA-49
32,000
4.9%
37,000
5.6%
16%
Brian Bilbray
R
CA-50
32,000
4.9%
42,000
6.3%
31%
Bob Filner
D
CA-51
43,000
6.6%
74,000
11.2%
72%
Duncan Hunter
R
CA-52
14,000
2.2%
22,000
3.3%
57%
Susan Davis
D
CA-53
44,000
6.8%
52,000
7.8%
18%
Diana DeGette
D
CO-01
54,000
8.3%
66,000
10.0%
22%
Mark Udall
D
CO-02
22,000
3.4%
30,000
4.5%
36%
John Salazar
D
CO-03
11,000
1.7%
22,000
3.3%
100%
Marilyn Musgrave
R
CO-04
21,000
3.2%
35,000
5.3%
67%
Joel Hefley
R
CO-05
9,000
1.4%
17,000
2.6%
89%
Thomas Tancredo
R
CO-06
6,000
0.9%
14,000
2.1%
133%
Bob Beauprez
R
CO-07
33,000
5.1%
40,000
6.0%
21%
John Larson
D
CT-01
12,000
1.9%
18,000
2.7%
50%
Rob Simmons
R
CT-02
4,000
0.6%
9,000
1.4%
125%
Rosa DeLauro
D
CT-03
12,000
1.9%
17,000
2.6%
42%
Christopher Shays
R
CT-04
26,000
4.0%
35,000
5.3%
35%
Nancy Johnson
R
CT-05
14,000
2.2%
35,000
5.3%
150%
Eleanor Holmes Norton
D
DC-D
19,000
2.9%
19,000
2.9%
0%
Michael Castle
R
DE-AL
12,000
1.9%
27,000
4.1%
125%
Jeff Miller
R
FL-01
3,000
0.5%
8,000
1.2%
167%
Allen Boyd
D
FL-02
5,000
0.8%
11,000
1.7%
120%
Corrine Brown
D
FL-03
16,000
2.5%
30,000
4.5%
88%
Ander Crenshaw
R
FL-04
7,000
1.1%
15,000
2.3%
114%
Ginny Brown-Waite
R
FL-05
5,000
0.8%
21,000
3.2%
320%
Cliff Stearns
R
FL-06
6,000
0.9%
16,000
2.4%
167%
John Mica
R
FL-07
7,000
1.1%
18,000
2.7%
157%
Ric Keller
R
FL-08
18,000
2.8%
36,000
5.4%
100%
Michael Bilrakis
R
FL-09
13,000
2.0%
22,000
3.3%
69%
C. W. Bill Young
R
FL-10
10,000
1.5%
13,000
2.0%
30%
Jim Davis
D
FL-11
23,000
3.6%
45,000
6.8%
96%
Adam Putnam
R
FL-12
15,000
2.3%
37,000
5.6%
147%
Katherine Harris
R
FL-13
19,000
2.9%
38,000
5.7%
100%
Connie Mack
R
FL-14
19,000
2.9%
52,000
7.8%
174%
Dave Weldon
R
FL-15
12,000
1.9%
29,000
4.4%
142%
Mark Foley
R
FL-16
17,000
2.6%
37,000
5.6%
118%
Kendrick Meek
D
FL-17
51,000
7.9%
61,000
9.2%
20%
Ileana Ros-Lehtinen
R
FL-18
81,000
12.5%
97,000
14.6%
20%
Robert Wexler
D
FL-19
28,000
4.3%
52,000
7.8%
86%
Debbie Wasserman Schultz
D
FL-20
38,000
5.9%
74,000
11.2%
95%
Lincoln Diaz-Balart
R
FL-21
87,000
13.4%
99,000
14.9%
14%
E. Clay Shaw Jr.
R
FL-22
23,000
3.6%
41,000
6.2%
78%
Alcee Hastings
D
FL-23
55,000
8.5%
79,000
11.9%
44%
Tom Feeney
R
FL-24
9,000
1.4%
20,000
3.0%
122%
Mario Diaz-Balart
R
FL-25
73,000
11.3%
91,000
13.7%
25%
Jack Kingston
R
GA-01
9,000
1.4%
13,000
2.0%
44%
Sanford Bishop Jr.
D
GA-02
8,000
1.2%
NA
NA
NA
Jim Marshall
D
GA-03
7,000
1.1%
NA
NA
NA
Cynthia McKinney
D
GA-04
42,000
6.5%
62,000
9.4%
48%
John Lewis
D
GA-05
26,000
4.0%
46,000
6.9%
77%
Tom Price
R
GA-06
17,000
2.6%
34,000
5.1%
100%
John Linder
R
GA-07
17,000
2.6%
35,000
5.3%
106%
Lynn Westmoreland
R
GA-08
5,000
0.8%
10,000
1.5%
100%
Charlie Norwood
R
GA-09
6,000
0.9%
15,000
2.3%
150%
Nathan Deal
R
GA-10
30,000
4.6%
42,000
6.3%
40%
Phil Gingrey
R
GA-11
25,000
3.9%
48,000
7.2%
92%
John Barrow
D
GA-12
8,000
1.2%
11,000
1.7%
38%
David Scott
D
GA-13
38,000
5.9%
71,000
10.7%
87%
Neil Abercrombie
D
HI-01
12,000
1.9%
20,000
3.0%
67%
Ed Case
D
HI-02
6,000
0.9%
13,000
2.0%
117%
Jim Nussle
R
IA-01
3,000
0.5%
5,000
0.8%
67%
James Leach
R
IA-02
5,000
0.8%
9,000
1.4%
80%
Leonard Boswell
D
IA-03
8,000
1.2%
7,000
1.1%
-13%
Tom Latham
R
IA-04
6,000
0.9%
12,000
1.8%
100%
Steve King
R
IA-05
7,000
1.1%
6,000
0.9%
-14%
C. L. Otter
R
ID-01
9,000
1.4%
13,000
2.0%
44%
Michael Simpson
R
ID-02
15,000
2.3%
23,000
3.5%
53%
Bobby Rush
D
IL-01
7,000
1.1%
13,000
2.0%
86%
Jesse Jackson Jr.
D
IL-02
10,000
1.5%
6,000
0.9%
-40%
Daniel Lipinski
D
IL-03
29,000
4.5%
31,000
4.7%
7%
Luis Gutierrez
D
IL-04
114,000
17.6%
122,000
18.4%
7%
Rahm Emanuel
D
IL-05
45,000
7.0%
35,000
5.3%
-22%
Henry Hyde
R
IL-06
36,000
5.6%
41,000
6.2%
14%
Danny Davis
D
IL-07
11,000
1.7%
15,000
2.3%
36%
Melissa Bean
D
IL-08
28,000
4.3%
40,000
6.0%
43%
Janice Schakowsky
D
IL-09
42,000
6.5%
36,000
5.4%
-14%
Mark Kirk
R
IL-10
35,000
5.4%
38,000
5.7%
9%
Jerry Weller
R
IL-11
10,000
1.5%
17,000
2.6%
70%
Jerry Costello
D
IL-12
3,000
0.5%
NA
NA
NA
Judy Biggert
R
IL-13
13,000
2.0%
22,000
3.3%
69%
J. Dennis Hastert
R
IL-14
38,000
5.9%
57,000
8.6%
50%
Timothy Johnson
R
IL-15
6,000
0.9%
9,000
1.4%
50%
Donald Manzullo
R
IL-16
13,000
2.0%
17,000
2.6%
31%
Lane Evans
D
IL-17
4,000
0.6%
NA
NA
NA
Ray LaHood
R
IL-18
3,000
0.5%
3,000
0.5%
0%
John Shimkus
R
IL-19
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
Peter Visclosky
D
IN-01
6,000
0.9%
11,000
1.7%
83%
Chris Chocola
R
IN-02
11,000
1.7%
20,000
3.0%
82%
Mark Souder
R
IN-03
11,000
1.7%
15,000
2.3%
36%
Steve Buyer
R
IN-04
8,000
1.2%
18,000
2.7%
125%
Dan Burton
R
IN-05
4,000
0.6%
16,000
2.4%
300%
Mike Pence
R
IN-06
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
Julia Carson
D
IN-07
14,000
2.2%
32,000
4.8%
129%
John Hostettler
R
IN-08
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
Michael Sodrel
R
IN-09
4,000
0.6%
NA
NA
NA
Jerry Moran
R
KS-01
21,000
3.2%
30,000
4.5%
43%
Jim Ryun
R
KS-02
4,000
0.6%
4,000
0.6%
0%
Dennis Moore
D
KS-03
17,000
2.6%
25,000
3.8%
47%
Todd Tiahrt
R
KS-04
11,000
1.7%
15,000
2.3%
36%
Ed Whitfield
R
KY-01
3,000
0.5%
NA
NA
NA
Ron Lewis
R
KY-02
4,000
0.6%
7,000
1.1%
75%
Anne Northrup
R
KY-03
7,000
1.1%
16,000
2.4%
129%
Geoff Davis
R
KY-04
2,000
0.3%
5,000
0.8%
150%
Harold Rogers
R
KY-05
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
Ben Chandler
D
KY-06
9,000
1.4%
15,000
2.3%
67%
Bobby Jindal
R
LA-01
4,000
0.6%
5,000
0.8%
25%
William Jefferson
D
LA-02
4,000
0.6%
5,000
0.8%
25%
Charlie Melancon
D
LA-03
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
Jim McCrery
R
LA-04
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
Rodney Alexander
R
LA-05
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
Richard Baker
R
LA-06
4,000
0.6%
7,000
1.1%
75%
Charles Boustany Jr.
R
LA-07
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
John Olver
D
MA-01
6,000
0.9%
9,000
1.4%
50%
Richard Neal
D
MA-02
4,000
0.6%
14,000
2.1%
250%
James McGovern
D
MA-03
11,000
1.7%
17,000
2.6%
55%
Barney Frank
D
MA-04
8,000
1.2%
13,000
2.0%
63%
Martin Meehan
D
MA-05
15,000
2.3%
21,000
3.2%
40%
John Tierney
D
MA-06
9,000
1.4%
18,000
2.7%
100%
Edward Markey
D
MA-07
21,000
3.2%
43,000
6.5%
105%
Michael Capuano
D
MA-08
44,000
6.8%
57,000
8.6%
30%
Stephen Lynch
D
MA-09
12,000
1.9%
21,000
3.2%
75%
William Delahunt
D
MA-10
6,000
0.9%
19,000
2.9%
217%
Wayne Gilchrest
R
MD-01
3,000
0.5%
11,000
1.7%
267%
C. A. Dutch Ruppersberger
D
MD-02
5,000
0.8%
15,000
2.3%
200%
Benjamin Cardin
D
MD-03
9,000
1.4%
27,000
4.1%
200%
Albert Wynn
D
MD-04
22,000
3.4%
45,000
6.8%
105%
Steny Hoyer
D
MD-05
10,000
1.5%
18,000
2.7%
80%
Roscoe Bartlett
R
MD-06
2,000
0.3%
7,000
1.1%
250%
Elijah Cummings
D
MD-07
6,000
0.9%
10,000
1.5%
67%
Chris Van Hollen
D
MD-08
42,000
6.5%
75,000
11.3%
79%
Thomas Allen
D
ME-01
2,000
0.3%
4,000
0.6%
100%
Michael Michaud
D
ME-02
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
Bart Stupak
D
MI-01
1,000
0.2%
2,000
0.3%
100%
Peter Hoekstra
R
MI-02
6,000
0.9%
3,000
0.5%
-50%
Vernon Ehlers
R
MI-03
14,000
2.2%
26,000
3.9%
86%
Dave Camp
R
MI-04
2,000
0.3%
3,000
0.5%
50%
Dale Kildee
D
MI-05
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
Fred Upton
R
MI-06
7,000
1.1%
10,000
1.5%
43%
John Schwarz
R
MI-07
3,000
0.5%
6,000
0.9%
100%
Mike Rogers
R
MI-08
5,000
0.8%
14,000
2.1%
180%
Joe Knollenberg
R
MI-09
12,000
1.9%
26,000
3.9%
117%
Candice Miller
R
MI-10
4,000
0.6%
6,000
0.9%
50%
Thaddeus McCotter
R
MI-11
6,000
0.9%
17,000
2.6%
183%
Sander Levin
D
MI-12
8,000
1.2%
12,000
1.8%
50%
Carolyn Kilpatrick
D
MI-13
14,000
2.2%
24,000
3.6%
71%
John Conyers Jr.
D
MI-14
8,000
1.2%
9,000
1.4%
13%
John Dingell
D
MI-15
9,000
1.4%
17,000
2.6%
89%
Gil Gutknecht
R
MN-01
7,000
1.1%
7,000
1.1%
0%
John Kline
R
MN-02
6,000
0.9%
13,000
2.0%
117%
Jim Ramstad
R
MN-03
8,000
1.2%
18,000
2.7%
125%
Betty McCollum
D
MN-04
13,000
2.0%
16,000
2.4%
23%
Martin Sabo
D
MN-05
27,000
4.2%
42,000
6.3%
56%
Mark Kennedy
R
MN-06
2,000
0.3%
6,000
0.9%
200%
Collin Peterson
D
MN-07
3,000
0.5%
3,000
0.5%
0%
James Oberstar
D
MN-08
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
Wm. Lacy Clay
D
MO-01
4,000
0.6%
10,000
1.5%
150%
W. Todd Akin
R
MO-02
3,000
0.5%
7,000
1.1%
133%
Russ Carnahan
D
MO-03
7,000
1.1%
NA
NA
NA
Ike Skelton
D
MO-04
3,000
0.5%
NA
NA
NA
Emanuel Cleaver
D
MO-05
10,000
1.5%
20,000
3.0%
100%
Sam Graves
R
MO-06
3,000
0.5%
NA
NA
NA
Roy Blunt
R
MO-07
5,000
0.8%
5,000
0.8%
0%
Jo Ann Emerson
R
MO-08
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
Kenny Hulshof
R
MO-09
3,000
0.5%
NA
NA
NA
Roger Wicker
R
MS-01
3,000
0.5%
NA
NA
NA
Bennie Thompson
D
MS-02
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
Charles Pickering
R
MS-03
3,000
0.5%
NA
NA
NA
Gene Taylor
D
MS-04
4,000
0.6%
NA
NA
NA
Dennis Rehberg
R
MT-AL
2,000
0.3%
3,000
0.5%
50%
G. K. Butterfield
D
NC-01
9,000
1.4%
NA
NA
NA
Bob Etheridge
D
NC-02
22,000
3.4%
25,000
3.8%
14%
Walter Jones
R
NC-03
8,000
1.2%
11,000
1.7%
38%
David Price
D
NC-04
23,000
3.6%
39,000
5.9%
70%
Virginia Foxx
R
NC-05
11,000
1.7%
13,000
2.0%
18%
Howard Coble
R
NC-06
14,000
2.2%
17,000
2.6%
21%
Mike McIntyre
D
NC-07
12,000
1.9%
24,000
3.6%
100%
Robin Hayes
R
NC-08
20,000
3.1%
34,000
5.1%
70%
Sue Myrick
R
NC-09
12,000
1.9%
24,000
3.6%
100%
Patrick McHenry
R
NC-10
11,000
1.7%
20,000
3.0%
82%
Charles Taylor
R
NC-11
7,000
1.1%
11,000
1.7%
57%
Melvin Watt
D
NC-12
28,000
4.3%
51,000
7.7%
82%
Brad Miller
D
NC-13
26,000
4.0%
46,000
6.9%
77%
Earl Pomeroy
D
ND-AL
2,000
0.3%
3,000
0.5%
50%
Jeff Fortenberry
R
NE-01
9,000
1.4%
15,000
2.3%
67%
Lee Terry
R
NE-02
11,000
1.7%
21,000
3.2%
91%
Tom Osborne
R
NE-03
8,000
1.2%
13,000
2.0%
63%
Jeb Bradley
R
NH-01
4,000
0.6%
10,000
1.5%
150%
Charles Bass
R
NH-02
4,000
0.6%
8,000
1.2%
100%
Robert Andrews
D
NJ-01
6,000
0.9%
21,000
3.2%
250%
Frank LoBiondo
R
NJ-02
12,000
1.9%
15,000
2.3%
25%
Jim Saxton
R
NJ-03
4,000
0.6%
12,000
1.8%
200%
Christopher Smith
R
NJ-04
13,000
2.0%
30,000
4.5%
131%
Scott Garrett
R
NJ-05
10,000
1.5%
15,000
2.3%
50%
Frank Pallone Jr.
D
NJ-06
32,000
4.9%
48,000
7.2%
50%
Mike Ferguson
R
NJ-07
17,000
2.6%
21,000
3.2%
24%
Bill Pascrell Jr.
D
NJ-08
40,000
6.2%
41,000
6.2%
2%
Steven Rothman
D
NJ-09
36,000
5.6%
50,000
7.5%
39%
Donald Payne
D
NJ-10
31,000
4.8%
44,000
6.6%
42%
Rodney Frelinghuysen
R
NJ-11
17,000
2.6%
23,000
3.5%
35%
Rush Holt
D
NJ-12
15,000
2.3%
22,000
3.3%
47%
(vacant)
NJ-13
70,000
10.8%
74,000
11.2%
6%
Heather Wilson
R
NM-01
18,000
2.8%
35,000
5.3%
94%
Stevan Pearce
R
NM-02
20,000
3.1%
23,000
3.5%
15%
Tom Udall
D
NM-03
11,000
1.7%
25,000
3.8%
127%
Shelley Berkley
D
NV-01
62,000
9.6%
88,000
13.3%
42%
Jim Gibbons
R
NV-02
24,000
3.7%
39,000
5.9%
63%
Jon Porter
R
NV-03
21,000
3.2%
37,000
5.6%
76%
Timothy Bishop
D
NY-01
11,000
1.7%
16,000
2.4%
45%
Steve Israel
D
NY-02
17,000
2.6%
19,000
2.9%
12%
Peter King
R
NY-03
9,000
1.4%
7,000
1.1%
-22%
Carolyn McCarthy
D
NY-04
24,000
3.7%
25,000
3.8%
4%
Gary Ackerman
D
NY-05
57,000
8.8%
51,000
7.7%
-11%
Gregory Meeks
D
NY-06
47,000
7.3%
59,000
8.9%
26%
Joseph Crowley
D
NY-07
56,000
8.7%
59,000
8.9%
5%
Jerrold Nadler
D
NY-08
36,000
5.6%
47,000
7.1%
31%
Anthony Weiner
D
NY-09
37,000
5.7%
24,000
3.6%
-35%
Edolphus Towns
D
NY-10
31,000
4.8%
33,000
5.0%
6%
Major Owens
D
NY-11
54,000
8.3%
56,000
8.4%
4%
Nydia Velazquez
D
NY-12
67,000
10.4%
57,000
8.6%
-15%
Vito Fossella
R
NY-13
24,000
3.7%
25,000
3.8%
4%
Carolyn Maloney
D
NY-14
40,000
6.2%
45,000
6.8%
13%
Charles Rangel
D
NY-15
57,000
8.8%
51,000
7.7%
-11%
Jose Serrano
D
NY-16
61,000
9.4%
64,000
9.7%
5%
Eliot Engel
D
NY-17
36,000
5.6%
53,000
8.0%
47%
Nita Lowey
D
NY-18
35,000
5.4%
44,000
6.6%
26%
Sue Kelly
R
NY-19
9,000
1.4%
17,000
2.6%
89%
John Sweeney
R
NY-20
2,000
0.3%
5,000
0.8%
150%
Michael McNulty
D
NY-21
4,000
0.6%
10,000
1.5%
150%
Maurice Hinchey
D
NY-22
12,000
1.9%
25,000
3.8%
108%
John McHugh
R
NY-23
2,000
0.3%
2,000
0.3%
0%
Sherwood Boehlert
R
NY-24
4,000
0.6%
6,000
0.9%
50%
James Walsh
R
NY-25
4,000
0.6%
10,000
1.5%
150%
Thomas Reynolds
R
NY-26
3,000
0.5%
4,000
0.6%
33%
Brian Higgins
D
NY-27
2,000
0.3%
4,000
0.6%
100%
Louise Slaughter
D
NY-28
5,000
0.8%
8,000
1.2%
60%
John Kuhl Jr.
R
NY-29
3,000
0.5%
5,000
0.8%
67%
Steve Chabot
R
OH-01
4,000
0.6%
NA
NA
NA
Jean Schmidt
R
OH-02
3,000
0.5%
7,000
1.1%
133%
Michael Turner
R
OH-03
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
Michael Oxley
R
OH-04
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
Paul Gillmor
R
OH-05
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
Ted Strickland
D
OH-06
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
David Hobson
R
OH-07
2,000
0.3%
8,000
1.2%
300%
John Boehner
R
OH-08
3,000
0.5%
NA
NA
NA
Marcy Kaptur
D
OH-09
3,000
0.5%
4,000
0.6%
33%
Dennis Kucinich
D
OH-10
5,000
0.8%
7,000
1.1%
40%
Stephanie Jones
D
OH-11
5,000
0.8%
7,000
1.1%
40%
Patrick Tiberi
R
OH-12
7,000
1.1%
21,000
3.2%
200%
Sherrod Brown
D
OH-13
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
Steven LaTourette
R
OH-14
3,000
0.5%
8,000
1.2%
167%
Deborah Pryce
R
OH-15
10,000
1.5%
17,000
2.6%
70%
Ralph Regula
R
OH-16
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
Tim Ryan
D
OH-17
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
Robert Ney
R
OH-18
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
John Sullivan
R
OK-01
13,000
2.0%
22,000
3.3%
69%
Dan Boren
D
OK-02
4,000
0.6%
NA
NA
NA
Frank Lucas
R
OK-03
7,000
1.1%
NA
NA
NA
Tom Cole
R
OK-04
4,000
0.6%
8,000
1.2%
100%
Ernest Istook Jr.
R
OK-05
18,000
2.8%
28,000
4.2%
56%
David Wu
D
OR-01
28,000
4.3%
37,000
5.6%
32%
Greg Walden
R
OR-02
13,000
2.0%
12,000
1.8%
-8%
Earl Blumenauer
D
OR-03
27,000
4.2%
34,000
5.1%
26%
Peter DeFazio
D
OR-04
7,000
1.1%
9,000
1.4%
29%
Darlene Hooley
D
OR-05
25,000
3.9%
51,000
7.7%
104%
Robert Brady
D
PA-01
11,000
1.7%
29,000
4.4%
164%
Chaka Fattah
D
PA-02
8,000
1.2%
18,000
2.7%
125%
Phil English
R
PA-03
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
Melissa Hart
R
PA-04
1,000
0.2%
2,000
0.3%
100%
John Peterson
R
PA-05
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
Jim Gerlach
R
PA-06
6,000
0.9%
15,000
2.3%
150%
Curt Weldon
R
PA-07
6,000
0.9%
13,000
2.0%
117%
Michael Fitzpatrick
R
PA-08
5,000
0.8%
10,000
1.5%
100%
Bill Shuster
R
PA-09
1,000
0.2%
2,000
0.3%
100%
Dan Sherwood
R
PA-10
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
Paul Kanjorski
D
PA-11
2,000
0.3%
8,000
1.2%
300%
John Murtha
D
PA-12
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
Allyson Schwartz
D
PA-13
8,000
1.2%
18,000
2.7%
125%
Michael Doyle
D
PA-14
4,000
0.6%
8,000
1.2%
100%
Charles Dent
R
PA-15
6,000
0.9%
9,000
1.4%
50%
Joseph Pitts
R
PA-16
9,000
1.4%
13,000
2.0%
44%
Tim Holden
D
PA-17
3,000
0.5%
3,000
0.5%
0%
Tim Murphy
R
PA-18
2,000
0.3%
NA
NA
NA
Todd Platts
R
PA-19
4,000
0.6%
5,000
0.8%
25%
Patrick Kennedy
D
RI-01
10,000
1.5%
11,000
1.7%
10%
James Langevin
D
RI-02
11,000
1.7%
21,000
3.2%
91%
Henry Brown Jr.
R
SC-01
7,000
1.1%
20,000
3.0%
186%
Joe Wilson
R
SC-02
9,000
1.4%
31,000
4.7%
244%
J. Gresham Barrett
R
SC-03
6,000
0.9%
NA
NA
NA
Bob Inglis
R
SC-04
11,000
1.7%
28,000
4.2%
155%
John Spratt Jr.
D
SC-05
5,000
0.8%
14,000
2.1%
180%
James Clyburn
D
SC-06
4,000
0.6%
NA
NA
NA
Stephanie Herseth
D
SD-AL
3,000
0.5%
8,000
1.2%
167%
William Jenkins
R
TN-01
5,000
0.8%
NA
NA
NA
John Duncan Jr.
R
TN-02
3,000
0.5%
NA
NA
NA
Zach Wamp
R
TN-03
4,000
0.6%
11,000
1.7%
175%
Lincoln Davis
D
TN-04
3,000
0.5%
NA
NA
NA
Jim Cooper
D
TN-05
16,000
2.5%
31,000
4.7%
94%
Bart Gordon
D
TN-06
8,000
1.2%
NA
NA
NA
Marsha Blackburn
R
TN-07
4,000
0.6%
9,000
1.4%
125%
John Tanner
D
TN-08
4,000
0.6%
NA
NA
NA
Harold Ford Jr.
D
TN-09
10,000
1.5%
23,000
3.5%
130%
Louie Gohmert
R
TX-01
17,000
2.6%
20,000
3.0%
18%
Ted Poe
R
TX-02
17,000
2.6%
31,000
4.7%
82%
Sam Johnson
R
TX-03
45,000
7.0%
85,000
12.8%
89%
Ralph Hall
R
TX-04
14,000
2.2%
30,000
4.5%
114%
Jeb Hensarling
R
TX-05
20,000
3.1%
34,000
5.1%
70%
Joe Barton
R
TX-06
29,000
4.5%
45,000
6.8%
55%
John Culberson
R
TX-07
37,000
5.7%
54,000
8.1%
46%
Kevin Brady
R
TX-08
13,000
2.0%
26,000
3.9%
100%
Al Green
D
TX-09
76,000
11.7%
85,000
12.8%
12%
Michael McCaul
R
TX-10
30,000
4.6%
60,000
9.1%
100%
K. Michael Conaway
R
TX-11
11,000
1.7%
12,000
1.8%
9%
Kay Granger
R
TX-12
34,000
5.3%
49,000
7.4%
44%
Mac Thornberry
R
TX-13
13,000
2.0%
NA
NA
NA
Ron Paul
R
TX-14
19,000
2.9%
26,000
3.9%
37%
Ruben Hinojosa
D
TX-15
40,000
6.2%
55,000
8.3%
38%
Silvestre Reyes
D
TX-16
50,000
7.7%
58,000
8.7%
16%
Chet Edwards
D
TX-17
17,000
2.6%
34,000
5.1%
100%
Sheila Jackson-Lee
D
TX-18
58,000
9.0%
74,000
11.2%
28%
Randy Neugebauer
R
TX-19
10,000
1.5%
13,000
2.0%
30%
Charles Gonzalez
D
TX-20
27,000
4.2%
49,000
7.4%
81%
Lamar Smith
R
TX-21
11,000
1.7%
20,000
3.0%
82%
(vacant)
TX-22
21,000
3.2%
33,000
5.0%
57%
Henry Bonilla
R
TX-23
28,000
4.3%
46,000
6.9%
64%
Kenny Marchant
R
TX-24
31,000
4.8%
43,000
6.5%
39%
Lloyd Doggett
D
TX-25
68,000
10.5%
91,000
13.7%
34%
Michael Burgess
R
TX-26
25,000
3.9%
49,000
7.4%
96%
Solomon Ortiz
D
TX-27
30,000
4.6%
36,000
5.4%
20%
Henry Cuellar
D
TX-28
27,000
4.2%
47,000
7.1%
74%
Gene Green
D
TX-29
97,000
15.0%
107,000
16.1%
10%
Eddie Johnson
D
TX-30
76,000
11.7%
68,000
10.3%
-11%
John Carter
R
TX-31
12,000
1.9%
21,000
3.2%
75%
Pete Sessions
R
TX-32
92,000
14.2%
120,000
18.1%
30%
Rob Bishop
R
UT-01
28,000
4.3%
29,000
4.4%
4%
Jim Matheson
D
UT-02
14,000
2.2%
23,000
3.5%
64%
Chris Cannon
R
UT-03
25,000
3.9%
38,000
5.7%
52%
Jo Ann Davis
R
VA-01
4,000
0.6%
11,000
1.7%
175%
Thelma Drake
R
VA-02
6,000
0.9%
9,000
1.4%
50%
Robert Scott
D
VA-03
4,000
0.6%
9,000
1.4%
125%
J. Randy Forbes
R
VA-04
3,000
0.5%
14,000
2.1%
367%
Virgil Goode Jr.
R
VA-05
5,000
0.8%
NA
NA
NA
Bob Goodlatte
R
VA-06
6,000
0.9%
8,000
1.2%
33%
Eric Cantor
R
VA-07
6,000
0.9%
16,000
2.4%
167%
James Moran
D
VA-08
48,000
7.4%
59,000
8.9%
23%
Rick Boucher
D
VA-09
3,000
0.5%
NA
NA
NA
Frank Wolf
R
VA-10
20,000
3.1%
44,000
6.6%
120%
Tom Davis
R
VA-11
22,000
3.4%
35,000
5.3%
59%
Bernard Sanders
I
VT-AL
3,000
0.5%
3,000
0.5%
0%
Jay Inslee
D
WA-01
13,000
2.0%
31,000
4.7%
138%
Rick Larsen
D
WA-02
12,000
1.9%
24,000
3.6%
100%
Brian Baird
D
WA-03
11,000
1.7%
15,000
2.3%
36%
Doc Hastings
R
WA-04
44,000
6.8%
56,000
8.4%
27%
Cathy McMorris
R
WA-05
8,000
1.2%
10,000
1.5%
25%
Norman Dicks
D
WA-06
9,000
1.4%
17,000
2.6%
89%
Jim McDermott
D
WA-07
21,000
3.2%
38,000
5.7%
81%
David Reichert
R
WA-08
15,000
2.3%
33,000
5.0%
120%
Adam Smith
D
WA-09
16,000
2.5%
26,000
3.9%
63%
Paul Ryan
R
WI-01
7,000
1.1%
13,000
2.0%
86%
Tammy Baldwin
D
WI-02
12,000
1.9%
21,000
3.2%
75%
Ron Kind
D
WI-03
2,000
0.3%
4,000
0.6%
100%
Gwen Moore
D
WI-04
18,000
2.8%
27,000
4.1%
50%
F. James Sensenbrenner Jr.
R
WI-05
4,000
0.6%
4,000
0.6%
0%
Thomas Petri
R
WI-06
4,000
0.6%
7,000
1.1%
75%
David Obey
D
WI-07
2,000
0.3%
3,000
0.5%
50%
Mark Green
R
WI-08
6,000
0.9%
10,000
1.5%
67%
Alan Mollohan
D
WV-01
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
Shelley Capito
R
WV-02
1,000
0.2%
NA
NA
NA
Nick Rahall II
D
WV-03
0
0.0%
NA
NA
NA
Barbara Cubin
R
WY-AL
3,000
0.5%
NA
NA
NA
USA
8,200,000
11,500,000
40%
 
Note: 2005 data are unavailable for 65 districts; see "Methodology" for discussion.
(a) Based on average district size of 646,947; (b) Based on average district size of 662,938.
Source: Congressional estimates by Rob Paral; national estimates derived from Jeffrey S. Passel, The Size and Characteristics of the Unauthorized Migrant Population in the U.S.: Estimates Based on the March 2005 Current Population Survey. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center, March 7, 2006; Jeffrey S. Passel, Jennifer Van Hook & Frank D. Bean, Estimates of the Legal and Unauthorized Foreign-Born Population for the United States and Selected States, Based on Census 2000. Warminster, PA: Sabre Systems, Inc., June 1, 2004.
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Methodology

To estimate the number of undocumented immigrants in congressional districts, I begin with credible estimates of how many of these immigrants live in the United States and use Census Bureau data to distribute those numbers across districts. For numbers of undocumented immigrants at that national level, I use widely cited estimates of the number of undocumented immigrants in the United States by world region of origin in 2000 and 2005.2 To distribute the national estimates of undocumented immigrants across congressional districts, I use census data on the number of immigrants by world region of origin and by the period during which when they entered the United States. These data are available from the 2000 census for all congressional districts. For 2005, however, the data were not available for 65 districts. For these districts, I was unable to estimate the size of the undocumented population in 2005.

As an example of how I use this distributive process to estimate undocumented immigrants by congressional district in 2000, the district of Rep. Ed Pastor (D-4th/AZ) received 2.5 percent of all Mexican non-citizen arrivals who came to the U.S. in the 1990-2000 period. I use this to assign 2.5 percent of the national estimate of Mexican undocumented immigrants to his district. This is a reasonable method because a large portion of all undocumented Mexican immigrants arrived in recent years, because undocumented immigrant settlement patterns track those of legal immigrants, and because undocumented immigrants are the majority of all Mexican immigrants reported by the Census as having arrived in recent years. I distribute immigrants from all major world regions by this same methodology and use a similar procedure for 2005.



October 2006

Endnotes
*Rob Paral is a Research Fellow with the Immigration Policy Center. Michael Norkewicz provided valuable data programming services for this report.
1Rob Paral, Playing Politics on Immigration: Congress Favors Image over Substance in Passing H.R. 4437. Washington, DC: Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, February 2006.
2Jeffrey S. Passel, The Size and Characteristics of the Unauthorized Migrant Population in the U.S.: Estimates Based on the March 2005 Current Population Survey. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center, March 7, 2006; Jeffrey S. Passel, Jennifer Van Hook & Frank D. Bean, Estimates of the Legal and Unauthorized Foreign-Born Population for the United States and Selected States, Based on Census 2000. Warminster, PA: Sabre Systems, Inc., June 1, 2004.

Copyright 2006 by the American Immigration Law Foundation

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